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TO:                 Period 1 SNC2DB-01 students

FROM:           Mr. Koivu

RE:                 Outline of material on final chemistry test

TEST DATE: Tuesday, December 18th       Wednesday, December 19.


 

CHAPTER 5: CHEMICALS IN ACTION


            Draw structures for various hydrocarbons (covalently bonded compounds)

      205 – 206. Have a basic understanding about the structure of basic polymers. We will review these on Monday.


 

H- -O- Cl- =C=            -S-



 

            Important concept ***: know the basic difference between ionically bonded compounds (p. 192 – 195) and covalently bonded compounds. (p. 201 - 204)




CHAPTER 6: UNDERSTANDING CHEMICAL REACTIONS

            Nothing on test from Chapter 6: this material was covered on your previous test.




CHAPTER 7: CONTROLLING CHEMICAL REACTIONS

            The four major factors are temperature, concentration, surface area and catalysts. Know HOW these factors increase or decrease the reaction rate and be able to explain WHY these effects occur, using the particle theory to explain. The only exception is the mechanism on which catalysts operate: this is not a concept that grade 10 students learn.

 

            Exothermic / endothermic reactions. This simple demo will be done on Monday. All you need to understand is that these reactions either release heat energy or take in heat energy as they proceed.          page 281        

 

 

CHAPTER 8: ACIDS and BASES

            Acids and bases: defined (p. 293 – 294). Acids release [H+] ions, bases release [OH-] ions in the water

 

            Naming acids and bases (just a few examples such as listed on p. 295)


            pH scale:

1.               What does pH mean? What is the significance of a pH of 7? 14?

2.               Identify common solutions on the scale from 0 to 14.

3.               Be able to use the formula pH = -log10[H+]

4,               Be able to do general proportion questions such as #3, page 299

 

            5.               Concept: how bases are made (page 305)

-metals react with oxygen to form metal oxides

-metal oxides react with water to form bases

 

Similarly: how acids are made

-Non-metals react with oxygen to form non-metal oxides

-Non-metal oxides react with water to form acids. (page 306)

 

            6.               Neutralization reactions; write out and balance (page. 317 – 318)

 

            7.               Acid rain: a brief understanding of acid-rain producing gases and the process which creates acid rain (p. 322)


ie: Industry produces SO3 gas through combustion of sulfur. Gas goes up in atmosphere where it reacts with water in the clouds producing H2SO4. This is the “acid rain” which damages farmlands, acidifies lakes, kills fish, damages bridges and dissolves statues. Same process occurs for other gases such as NO2 and CO2.